• Book Name: Design of Reinforced Concrete Foundations by P. C. Varghese
  • Author: P. C. Varghese
  • Pages: 452
  • Size: 94 MB

Design of Reinforced Concrete Foundations PDF

Contents of Design of Reinforced Concrete Foundations PDF

1 Foundation Structures

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Rigid and Flexible Foundations

1.3 Loads and their Effects

1.4 Design Requirements

1.5 Geotechnical Design

1.6 Empirical and Exact Methods of Analysis of Foundations

1.7 Design Loads for Foundations

1.8 Recommended Approach to Structural Design of Foundations

1.9 Summary

References

2 Review of Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete

  1. 1 Introduction

2.2 Ultimate Strength Design

2.3 Designing for Maximum Bending Moment

2.3.1 Determination of the Bending Moment Mu

2.3.2 Determination of Minimum Depth for Mu

2.3.3 Determination of Steel Area Required

2.3.4 Minimum Areas of Steel in R.C. Members

2.4 Checking for Bond

2.5 Design of Slabs and Beams for Bending Shear (One-Way Shear)

2.5.1 Shear in Beams

2.5.2 Design Procedure for Slabs in One-way Shear

2.5.3 Procedure for Design of Shear Steel in Beams

2.6 Punching Shear (Two-way Shear) in Slabs

2.7 Detailing of Steel

2.8 Width of Flange of T-Beams

3 IS 456 Provisions for Design of Footings and Pedestals

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Design Loads for Foundation Design

3.3 Basis of Structural Design of R.C. Footings

3.4 Soil Pressure on Foundations

3.5 Conventional Analysis of Footings Subjected to Vertical Load and Moments

3.5.1 General Comments

3.6 General Planning and Design of Independent Footings

3.6.1 Calculation of Shear for Design of Slab Footings

3.6.2 Bending Moment for Design

3.7 Minimum Depth and Detailing of Steel Requirements

3.7.1 Transfer of Load at Base of Column

3.8 Checking for Development Lengths of Main Bars in Footings

3.9 Design of Pedestals

3.10 Design Charts for Preliminary Design of Column and Wall Footings

3.11 Design Charts for Design of Columns and Footings

4 Design of Centrally Loaded Isolated Footings and Column Pedestals

  1. 1 Introduction

4.2 General Procedure for Design

4.3 Design of Square Footing of Uniform Depth (Pad Footing)

4.4 Design of Sloped Rectangular Footings

4.4.1 Design Procedure

4.5 Detailing of Steel

4.6 Design of Rectangular Pad Footings

4.7 Design of Plain Concrete Footings

4.8 Design of Pedestals

4.8.1 Design Calculation for Pedestals

4.9 Summary

5 Wall Footings

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Simple Plain Concrete Wall Footings

5.2.1 Dispersion of Load in Plain Concrete

5.2.2 Transfer Stress to Concrete

5.3 Reinforced Concrete Continuous Strip Wall Footings

5.3.1 Design of Continuous Strip Wall Footings

5.3.2 Design for Longitudinal Steel

5.4 R.C. T Beam or U Wall Footings in Shrinkable Soils

5.4.1 Design of R.C. T or U Continuous Beam Footings

5.5 Design of U Beam Wall Footings

5.6 Foundations of Partition Walls in Ground Floors

6 Design of Isolated Footings with Vertical Loads and Moments

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Planning Layout of Isolated Column Footing with Constant W and Mto Produce Uniform Base Pressure (Case 1)

6.3 Planning Layout of Isolated Column Footing with Constant W and  Varying Min One Direction Only (Case 2)

6.3.1 Procedure for Planning Layout of Footings W with and Varying M

6.4 Isolated Column Footings with Constant W and Moments in any Direction (Case 3)

7 Combined Footings for Two Columns

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Types of Combined Footings

7.3 Action of Combined Footings

7.4 Planning Layout of Combined Footing

7.5 Distribution of Column Loads in the Transverse Direction

7.6 Enhanced Shear Near Supports

7.7 Combined Footing with Transverse Beams Under Column Loads

7.8 Steps in Design of Combined Slab Footings

7.8.1 Concept of Column Strip for Design of Transverse Steel in Combined Slab Footings

7.9 Steps in Design of Combined Beam and Slab Footing

8 Balanced Footings

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Types of Balancing Used

8.3 Loads to be Taken for Calculation

8.4 Basis of Design

9 Strip Footings under Several Columns

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Design Procedure for Equally Loaded and Equally Spaced Columns

9.3 Analysis of Continuous Strip Footing for Unsymmetric Loading

9.3.1 Analysis of Strip Footing with Unsymmetrical Loads

9.4 Detailing of Members

10 Raft Foundations

lO.l Introduction

10.2 Rigid and Flexible Foundations

10.3 Common Types of Rafts

10.3.1 Plain Slab Rafts for Lightly Loaded Buildings

10.3.2 Flat Slab Rafts for Framed Buildings—Mat Foundation

10.3.3 Beam and Slab Rafts

10.3.4 Cellular Rafts

10.3.5 Piled Rafts

10.3.6 Annular Rafts

10.3.7 Grid Foundation

10.4 Deflection Requirements of Beams and Slabs in Rafts

10.5 General Considerations in Design of Rigid Rafts

10.6 Types of Loadings and Choice of Rafts

10.7 Record of Contact Pressures Measured under Rafts

10.8 Modern Theoretical Analysis

11 Design of Flat Slab Rafts—Mat Foundations

ll.l Introduction

11.2 Components of Flat Slabs

11.3 Preliminary Planning of Flat Slab Rafts

11.3.1 Columns

11.3.2 Main Slab

11.3.3 Edge Beams

11.4 Analysis of Flat Slab by Direct Design Method

11.5 Method of Analysis

11.5.1 Values for Longitudinal Distribution and Transverse Redistribution

11.5.2 Shear in Flat Slabs

11.5.3 Bending of Columns in Flat Slabs

11.6 Limitations of Direct Design Method for Mats

11.7 Equivalent Frame Method of Analysis for Irregular Flat Slabs

11.7.1 Method of Equivalent Frame Analysis

11.7.2 Transverse Distribution of Moments along Panel Width in EFM

11.7.3 Approximate Method for Eccentrically Loaded Raft

11.7.4 Approximate Design of Flat Slab Rafts (Calculation of BM and SF from Statics)

11.8 Detailing of Steel

11.9 Design of Edge Beam in Flat Slabs

11.9.1 Design of Slab around Edge Beam and its Corners

11.10 Use of Flat Slab in Irregular Layout of Columns

12 Beam and Slab Rafts

I2.l Introduction

12.2 Planning of the Raft

12.3 Action of the Raft

12.3.1 Approximate Dimensioning of the .Raft

12.4 Design of the Beam and Slab Raft under Uniform Pressure

12.4.1 Structural Analysis for the Main Slab

12.4.2 Design of Secondary and Main Beams

12.5 Analysis by Winkler Model

12.6 Modern Methods by use of Computers

12.7 Detailing of Steel

13 Compensated Foundations, Cellular Rafts and Basement Floors

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Types of Compensated Foundations

13.3 Construction of Cellular Rafts

13.4 Components of Cellular Rafts

13.5 Analysis

13.6 Principles of Design of Concrete Walls

13.7 Planning and Design of Basement Floors

14 Combined Piled Raft Foundation (CPRF)

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Types and uses of Piled Rafts

14.2.1 Beneficial Effects of CPRF

14.3 Interaction of Pile and Raft

14.4 Ultimate Capacity and Settlement of Piles

14.4.1 Estimation of Settlement of Piles

14.5 Estimation of Settlement of Raft in Soils

14.6 Allowable Maximum and Differential Settlement in Buildings

14.7 Design of CPRF System

14.7.1 Conceptual Method of Design

14.8 Conceptual Method of Analysis

14.9 Distribution of Piles in the Rafts

14.10 Theoretical Methods of Analysis

15 Circular and Annular Rafts

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Positioning of Chimney Load on Annular Raft

15.3 Forces Acting on Annular Rafts

15.4 Pressures under Dead Load and Moment

15.5 Methods of Analysis

15.6 Conventional Analysis of Annular Rafts

15.7 Chu and Afandi’s Formulae for Annular Slabs

15.7.1 Chu and Afandi’s Formulae for Analysis of Circular Rafts Subjected to Vertical Loads (Chimney Simply Supported by Slab; for Circular Raft, put b = 0)

15.7.2 Chu and Afandi’s Formulae for Analysis of Circular Rafts Subjected to Moment (Chimney Simply Supported to Slab; for Circular Raft, put 6 = 0)

15.7.3 Nature of Moments and Shear

15.8 Analysis of Ring Beams under Circular Layout of Columns

15.8.1 Analysis of Ring Beams Transmitting Column Loads to Annular Rafts

15.9 Detailing of Annular Raft under Columns of a Circular Water Tank

15.10 Circular Raft on Piles

15.11 Enlargement of Chimney Shafts for Annular Rafts

16 Under-reamed Pile Foundations

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Safe Loads on Under-reamed Piles

16.3 Design of Under-reamed Pile Foundation for Load Bearing Walls of Buildings

16.3.1 Design of Grade Beams

16.4 Design of Under-reamed Piles under Columns of Buildings

16.5 Use of Under-reamed Piles for Expansive Soils

17 Design of Pile Caps

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Design of Pile Caps

17.3 Shape of Pile Cap to be Adopted

17.4 Choosing Approximate Depth of Pile Cap

17.5 Design of Pile Cap Reinforcement and Capacity and Checking the Depth for Shear

17.5.1 Design for Steel

17.5.2 Designing Depth of Pile Cap for Shear

17.5.3 Checking for Punching Shear

17.6 Arrangement of Reinforcements

17.7 Eccentrically Loaded Pile Groups

17.8 Circular and Annular Pile Cap

17.8.1 Analysis of Forces on Vertical Piles

17.8.2 Analysis of Raked Piles (Inclined Pile)

17.9 Combined Pile Caps

18 Pile Foundations—Design of Large Diameter Socketed Piles

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Load Transfer Mechanism in Large Diameter Piles

18.3 Elastic Settlement of Piles and Need to Socket Large Diameter Piles in Rock

18.3.1 Example for Calculation of Deformations

18.4 Subsurface Investigation of Weathered Rock and Rock

18.4.1 Method 1: Core Drilling

18.4.2 Method 2: Cole and Stroud Method of Investigation of Weathered Rock

18.4.3 Method 3: Chisel Energy Method for Classification of Rocks

18.5 Calculation of Bearing Capacity of Socketed Piles

18.5.1 Estimation of Total Pile Capacity of Large Diameter Piles

18.6 Estimating Carrying Capacity of Large Diameter Piles

18.7 Energy Level Test Method (By Datye and Karandikar)

18.8 Cole and Stroud Method

18.9 Reese and O’Neill Method

18.10 IRC Recommendations

19 Design of Cantilever and Basement Retaining Walls

I9.l Introduction

19.2 Earth Pressure on Rigid Walls

19.2.1 Calculation of Earth Pressure on Retaining Walls

19.3 Design of Rigid Walls

19.4 Design of Ordinary R.C. Cantilever Walls

19.5 Design of Cantilever Walls without Toe

19.6 Design of Basement Walls

19.6.1 Calculation of Earth Pressures in Clays

19.7 Design of Free Standing Basement Walls

20 Infilled Virendeel Frame Foundations

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Behaviour of Virendeel Girders without Infills

20.2.1 General Dimensions Adopted

20.3 Approximate Analysis of Virendeel Girders

20.4 Results of Refined Analysis

20.5 Design of Virendeel Frame as a Beam or a Girder based on Soil Condition

20.6 Approximate Analysis of Virendeel Girder

20.7 Procedure for Design of Virendeel Frame Foundation

20.8 Detailing of Steel

21 Steel Column Bases

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Types of Bases

21.3 Design of R.C. Footings under Steel Columns

21.4 Design of Steel Grillage Foundation

21.4.1 Design Moments and Shears

21.4.2 Steps in Design of Grillage Foundations

21.5 Grillage Foundation as Combined Footing

21.6 Web Buckling and Web Crippling (Crushing) of 1-Beams under Concentrated Loads

21.6.1 Web Buckling

21.6.2 Web Crippling or Web Crushing

21.6.3 Checking for Web Buckling and Web Crippling

21.7 Design of Pocket Bases

22 Analysis of Flexible Beams on Elastic Foundation

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Methods of Analysis of Beams on Elastic Foundation

22.3 Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction and Winkler Model

22.4 Winkler Solution for a Continuous Beam on Elastic Foundation

22.4. 1 Solution for a Column Load at P on a Beam of Infinite

Length

22.4.2 Moments and Shears in Long Beams due to Loads

22.4.3 Classification of Beams as Rigid and Flexible

22.4.4 Winkler Solution for Short Beam on Elastic Foundation

22.4.5 Limitations of Winkler Model and its Improvement

22.4.6 Approximate Values of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction (also called Subgrade Coefficients)

22.5 Elastic Half-space or Modulus of Compressibility Method for Analysis of Beams on Elastic Foundation

22.6 Simplified ACI Method

22.7 Formulae for Contact Pressures under Perfect Rigid Structures

22.8 Selection of Suitable Model for Beams on Elastic Foundations [K from Es]

22.9 Analysis of Winkler and Elastic Half Space Model by Computers

22.10 Effect of Consolidation Settlement

22.11 Limitations of the Theory

23 ACI Method for Analysis of Beams and Grids on Elastic Foundations

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Derivation of the Method

23.3 Design Procedure

23.4 Analysis of Grid Foundations

24 Analysis of Flexible Plates on Elastic Foundations

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Description of ACI Procedure—Elastic Plate Method

25 Shells for Foundations

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Classification of Shells

25.3 Common Types of Shells Used

25.4 Significance of Gaussian Curvature

25.5 Types of Shells Used in Foundations

25.6 Hyperbolic Paraboloids (Hypar Shells)

25.7 Components of a Hypar Footing

25.8 Use of Hypar Shells in Foundation

25.9 Conical Shell as Footing

26 Hyperbolic Paraboloid (Hypar) Shell Foundation

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Nature of Forces in Hypar Shells

26.3 Design of Various Members

26.4 Membrane Forces in Hypar Foundation

26.4.1 Forces in the Ridge Beams and the Edge Beams

26.5 Magnitude of Forces

26.6 Procedure in Design of Hypar Shell Foundation

26.7 Empirical Dimensioning of Hypar Footing

26.8 Detailing of Hypar Footings

26.9 Expressions for Ultimate Bearing Capacity

27 Design of Conical Shell Foundation

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Forces in the Shell under Column Loads

27.3 Result of Shell Analysis

27.3.1 Nature of Forces

27.4 Detailing of Steel

28 Effect of Earthquakes on Foundation Structures

28.1 Introduction

28.2 General Remarks about Earthquakes

28.2.1 Magnitude and Intensity of an Earthquake

28.2.2 Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA)

28.2.3 Zone Factor (Z)

28.2.4 Relation between Various Factors

28.2.5 Response Spectrum

28.2.6 Damping Factor

28.2.7 Design Horizontal Seismic Coefficient

28.3 Historical Development of IS 1893

28.3.1 Philosophy of Design of Buildings according to IS 1893 (2002)

28.3.2 Calculation of Base Shear by IS 1893 (2002)

28.4 IS 1893 (2002) Recommendations Regarding Layout of Foundations

28.4.1 Classification of Foundation Strata

28.4.2 Types of Foundations Allowed in Sandy Soils

28.4.3 Types of Foundations that can be Adopted and Increase in Safe Bearing Capacity Allowed

28.4.4 Summary of IS 1893 Recommendations for Foundation Design for Earthquakes

28.5 Liquefaction of Soils

28.5.1 Soils Susceptible to Liquefaction

28.5.2 Field Data on Liquefaction

28.5.3 Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR) Method of Prediction

28.5.4 Value of {(XÿJg) to be Used for a Given Site—Site Effects

28.6 Amplification of Peak Ground Pressure of Rock Motion by

Soil Deposits

28.7 Ground Settlement

28.8 Methods to Prevent Liquefaction and Settlement

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